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Testing and Targets
Test Targets are designed to help evaluate or calibrate the performance (imaging quality) of an imaging system. This includes troubleshooting a system,
benchmarking, certifying, evaluating measurements, and establishing a foundation to ensure multiple systems work well together. Because image quality
can be defined by different components, particularly resolution, contrast, depth of field (DOF), or distortion, different systems may require different
types of targets or number of targets.
USAF 1951 Resolution Targets
USAF 1951 Resolution Targets consist of sets of horizontal
and vertical lines in varying sizes organized in groups and elements.
The horizontal and vertical elements are used to test
horizontal and vertical resolutions at discrete frequencies.
Resolution is an imaging system’s ability to distinguish object
detail, often expressed in line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm).
Star Targets are ideal for identifying focus errors, astigmatism,
as well as other focus differing aberrations. The target
consists of a circle formed with alternating black and white
radial lines emanating from a central point. Because the
lines taper, a continuous change in resolution is present and
can be measured in both vertical and horizontal directions
Ronchi Rulings consists of repeating lines at one spatial
frequency, running in one orientation that covers the entire
target. They are ideal for reticle and field calibration requirements
because there is detail across the entire target. They
are often used for evaluating resolution, contrast, field distortion
and parfocal stability.
Distortion is an optical error (aberration) in the lens that
may misplace certain parts of the image causing a magnification
difference in different parts of the image. Distortion
Targets are used for calibrating imaging systems for distortion.
These targets consist of a dot, grid, or square patterns
that are separated by various known distances.
Depth of Field Targets
Depth of Field (DOF) is the ability of a lens to maintain a
desired amount of image quality as the object moves in and
out of focus. DOF targets visualizes DOF and directly test the
DOF of imaging systems without the use of calculations. The
target should be mounted 45° from the front face of the lens.
The scale on the target consists of horizontal and vertical
lines that measure frequency in line pairs per mm (lp/mm).
EIA Grayscale Targets
EIA Grayscale Targets are ideal for testing optical and video
inspection systems and evaluating contrast levels. The targets
consist of a standard halftone pattern and carry two scales,
one linear and the other logarithmic, which is convenient depending
on the linearity of the detector being used. Contrast
is a measurement of the separation between the light and
dark areas of the image, often expressed in percent (%).
Color Checker Targets
Color checker targets are used to determine true color balance
or optical density of any color rendition system. They
may be expanded to include more squares with a different
assortment of colors and act as a reference for testing and
standardizing color inspection and analysis systems.
High Resolution Microscopy Slide Targets
Star Target Arrays
Checkerboard Calibration Targets
NIST Traceable Color
Transmission Calibration Slides